Infographic: Fast vs Ethical Fashion

When it comes to buying a fresh new t-shirt for the weekend – or any item of clothing for that matter – many don’t give a second thought as to how it arrived on the rail, and at what cost.

A new infographic by Shirtworks demonstrates the true cost of producing a typical t-shirt; from cotton farming to how local workers are treated and paid.

For example, did you know:

• There are roughly 40 million garment workers worldwide; most of which are earning less than $3 per day, with the majority earning less than 25% of the recommended living wage.

• Over 50% of non-organic cotton farmers do not have the correct safety clothing and equipment to protect themselves from harmful chemicals used to produce cotton in bulk. In Pakistan, 74% of female cotton workers suffer from partial pesticide poisoning.

• It takes 2,700 litres of water to produce a single t-shirt – that’s the equivalent of over 2 and a half years’ worth of drinking water for a single adult.

Clothing produced through ethical supply chains help to protect the local and wider environment, and offer dignified jobs for local garment workers, who are paid a fair wage and operate from safe, clean working conditions.

Take a look at the infographic below:

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Micro-fibre pollution: why what you wear matters

Whilst pollution from plastic bags, coffee cups and microbeads has come under intense scrutiny in recent months, another microplastic pollutant is passing under our noses on a daily basis. This pesky plastic is barely detectable to the eye, yet is polluting our ocean ecosystems at a terrifying rate. It is synthetic microfibres, and it’s a macro problem.

These microfibers come from the synthetic clothes and textiles so prevalent in daily life. It’s been estimated that 700,000 fibres could be released into wastewater on an average wash and spin load. Whilst natural fibres like wool and cotton are biodegradable, synthetic fibres like polyester and nylon are not. These fibres are manmade from fossil fuels so, not only are the CO2 emissions from polyester production 3x that of cotton, but the fibres hang around for a loooong time.

Take a look at the clothes you’re wearing now, what are they made of? Mine are mostly cotton (it’s a lounging kind of day), but my Sweaty Betty yoga top is 50% Merino wool, 34% Tencel, 16% Polyamide. It’s an interesting example because this includes all three of the fibre types; wool is natural, Tencel is a regenerated fibre from wood cellulose and Polyamide is manmade, very similar to polyester. In fact, polyester can be found in 60% of our clothing and it’s easy to see why; polyester is cheap, durable, crease-resistant and easy care. In some ways it’s more environmentally-friendly to produce than cotton because it has a lower water footprint and there’s no need for pesticides, but it does have a bigger carbon footprint.

Despite polyester’s useful properties I tend to prioritise natural fibres over synthetics because they are exactly that – natural. I have been aware of the ability to release microfiber pollution through the process of washing our clothes but it wasn’t until I spoke to Gintare from Amberoot that it really hit home. Gintare has a close affinity to nature and is passionate about reducing plastic pollution. Based in Brighton, UK, Gintare left a job in banking to set up a sustainable and ethical online clothing shop. Her goal is to encourage consumption behaviours that do not have a negative impact on the environment, other people or animals. Although she works with brands that emphasis holistic ethical work practices, the story behind Amberoot isn’t one of fairtrade or organic clothing per se, but instead is focused on shunning the pollution caused by synthetic fibres, turning instead back to natural ones. Natural fibres doesn’t mean just cotton and wool either; there is a growing list of exciting options from bamboo to orange fibre!

Gintare says: “The research regarding the microfiber effect on soil, air and health effects on humans is currently ongoing. There was some research regarding the health effects of inhaling microfibers and on health effects for soil and eventually us. But this is just very beginning, more studies are surely to come.”

The environmental impact of washing synthetic fibres has attracted a few studies but results are not conclusive. A study by the University of Plymouth for example found that more microfibers are released in the first four washes a new garment receives and that fabric composition and detergent choice also affect the amount of fibres released. Polyester-cotton mix consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. The addition of bio-detergent and fabric conditioner increased the numbers of fibres shed. Another study from earlier this year found that worn (old) fabrics shed more in the wash as did looser textile weaves.

Based on the research there are things you can do to limit your microplastic fibre footpoot:

1. If you need the performance of polyester, try poly-cotton mix (or something like my Sweaty Betty top) rather than 100% synthetic fibre.
2. Wash at a lower temperature. In the aforementioned study by Imogen Napper at Plymouth, washing at 40 degrees led to more fibres shed than at 30.
3. Try a GuppyFriend washing bag.
4. If you know a plumber, you could attach a filter system to your machine. It seems to me that manufacturers should be working towards this as standard. Maybe they are.
5. Look for natural fibres, care for them and wear them for years to come.

Amberoot is well worth a browse because Gintare has curated a range of beautiful brands, many of which were new to me. What’s particularly useful about the website is you can shop by accreditation (e.g. Fairwear, B Corp, PETA) as well as by brand. Buying natural, biodegradable fabrics means that you can avoid the pollution effects scientists are now discovering are caused by synthetic fibres. Amberoot stocks men’s and women’s clothes as well as home goods. I’m very tempted by the Motumo loose-fit linen dresses (see above)- yes they will need ironing, but I just wouldn’t wash it all that often! I also love the lingerie and nightwear by AmaElla and knitwear by Izzy Lane. The latter is knitted from the undyed wool of rescued sheep. If that doesn’t make you feel warm and fuzzy inside, I don’t know what will.

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Fair Trade Clothing – The Pros and Cons

A guest post by Michael Williams
Fair trade clothing is a growing niche within a larger offering of ethical clothing. As a concept, the primary focus is on equality and fairness for the people involved in production.

Although this article focuses on Fairtrade, there are other factors that buyers of ethical products need to consider, these include organic clothing, second hand clothing, recycled clothing, and clothing that protects factory workers, such as those accredited to the Fairwear Foundation standards. It is important not to automatically assume that because a clothing product is Fairtrade certified, it is also organic, sustainable, and ethical in ways outside the remit of the Fairtrade Foundation.

What is Fairtrade?
Fairtrade is a global movement that has been in existence for a number of decades, with the aim of improving the conditions for workers of raw materials in less developed nations. It also looks to provide better pay and more opportunities for these people. It does this by using a minimum price that the raw materials must be bought for, with a “social premium” added on top to help fund schools, and other projects that improve the lives of those in the local community.

Fairtrade is governed by the World Fair Trade Organisation (WFTO) and its network of “fair trade organisations” in different countries. In the UK, this job is given to the Fairtrade Foundation, who provides certification (the labels you see on Fairtrade certified products).

Fairtrade’s remit focuses mainly on the working conditions of producers of raw materials, like cotton, rather than environmental standards or working conditions in factories. Fairtrade also prevents the use of some pesticides, which has a secondary environmental benefit, but the primary motivation for this is to protect the workers’ health. It’s important to be aware that when you see a Fairtrade label on a cotton t-shirt, for example, it will only be the raw material fibre that is certified Fairtrade, not necessarily the whole garment (i.e. not the manufacturing process).

What isn’t Fairtrade?
Fairtrade isn’t a magic label that solves all of the world’s problems. It is a great tool to work towards that goal, but shouldn’t be considered in isolation. When considering ethical/sustainable clothing, you should also consider these factors:
• Is it Organic?
• Is it produced in factories that have good environmental records (eg. do they use renewable energy/minimise their pollution)?
• Are the factory workers protected?

When you buy a Fairtrade product, don’t assume these 3 things are protected too. The Fairtrade label only covers the workers that produce the raw material, although it would be nice to think that it’s probably more likely at least something is being done within the supply chain for these other elements.

What makes clothing “Fairtrade”?
Fairtrade clothing is made from materials that are Fairtrade certified, nearly always this means cotton. However, it doesn’t mean that it contains only 100% Fairtrade cotton, for example many clothing products are made blends such as 80% cotton, 20% polyester. Given that synthetic materials can’t be grown on a Fairtrade certified farm, this means that only the cotton will be Fairtrade.

The Pros
• The Fairtrade brand is one of the most well known ethical labels in the world, so you can be sure it’s genuine.
• Fairtrade clothing is usually of a higher quality (to match the higher price).
• This higher quality often feels and fits better.
• Fairtrade clothing can be useful for businesses to help them be more socially responsible.
• Some environmental benefits from less pesticide use.
• You get a warm fuzzy feeling when you buy it.*

The Cons
• Fairtrade clothing usually costs more (but you might be ok with that).
• Despite its growing demand, the supply is still lacking. You will have to look a bit harder to find Fairtrade clothing.
• Fairtrade isn’t a magic pill; you need to look at other ethical factors too.
• The minimum price for raw materials is often below market values, making it redundant (the farmers will get the market rate if it’s higher).
• You get a warm fuzzy feeling when you buy it.*

*The Warm Fuzzy Feeling
When you buy ethical products, including Fairtrade clothing you get a nice, warm, fuzzy feeling inside, knowing that your purchase has done some good in the world. Except consumer purchasing doesn’t necessarily make a big impact. Sushil Mohan discussed the limited impacts of a single consumer purchase in his book: Fair Trade Without the Froth.

Conclusion
Fairtrade is a great way to improve the imbalance within the global supply chains, by no means is it a magic pill, and it should be considered within the wider group of ethical accreditations. It costs a little more, but if you’re looking for ethical products then this difference probably doesn’t matter to you. Whilst it’s not perfect, it is definitely better than nothing.

About the author
Michael Williams is a writer and marketing professional with a keen interest in sustainability and the environment. This work often sees him writing bids for organisations, particularly assisting with their social value offerings.

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Pants to Poverty Discount Code

Pants to Poverty

Pants to Poverty is planning a relaunch for 2015 amidst exciting plans to live and work with suppliers in India. The brand, which is a familiar one to conscious consumers, are furthering their work to support sustainable business relationships by moving operations to their farmer’s office in Odisha, India, for a few weeks. The trip aims to let the Pants to Poverty staff document and assist with the harvest of the organic cotton that goes into making Pantabulous products. It’s a wonderful chance for the team to be fully involved in the ‘cotton to bottom’ process and whilst the relaunch won’t involve a significant change in product offering, the trip will no doubt inspire the team to develop new shapes and styles.

P2P IMAGE 5

You can buy Pants to Poverty online, plus they have a wide list of stockists across the UK. The lovely team have offered an exclusive discount code to readers of Ethical High Street, you just need to quote ETHICALHIGHSTREET (in caps) online to get 10% off. Why not stock up on new undies for winter? They make great gifts/stocking fillers too!

Read more on Ethical High Street (which, by the way, now features the indie ethical shop directory)

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Supply Crisis 2010

I like it when Drapers arrives through my door each Friday. A point that just jumped out at me this morning was Drapers Review of the Year where it talks about the supply crisis. I’ve already mentioned the cotton issues, which was the major cause of supply issues, however drapers also state, “with rising labour costs in China – pay went up 30% this year – businesses were forced to look elsewhere, notably Bangladesh.”

I am aware that this is the reality, but it makes me so sad that it is felt to be the only option. The Chinese workers deserve that pay increase, but of course consumers in the West are accustomed to low prices. Retailers have spent the last few decades chasing cheap labour, sooner or later consumers are just going to have to accept how much it costs to make clothes ethically.
Bangladesh is still one of the worst (ethically speaking) places to manufacture, and therefore the cheapest. Just this week 31 workers were killed in a factory fire in Bangladesh, and 200 injured.

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Power shifts to cotton farmer

Drapers put cotton farmers as the 3rd most influential player in the fashion industry for 2010. They published the list last Friday of their top 100 most influential people in the fashion industry of the last year. First place went to Christopher Bailey of Burberry, no surprise considering the shearling boot and aviator jacket were probably the most covetable items of the year (making me dreamy just thinking about them). 2nd place went to the bosses at All Saints, and then came the cotton farmer. Perhaps a surprising choice, but all considering, the rise in cotton prices has of course had a major effect on the industry. A ban on cotton exports from India at the start of the year, poor cotton harvests in China and flood-hit Pakistan put a severe squeeze on supply. The price per pound reached new record highs on a near monthly basis and rose past the $1 (64p) per pound mark for the first time in 15 years. This has led retailers with a bit of a dilemma, pass the price rise on to the consumer or take it out of their own profits? This could be another factor in pushing a gradual change in the way we shop, as rock bottom prices for new clothes are not going to continue to be sustainable.

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