Where did fast fashion come from?

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Last Monday 24th April was Fashion Revolution Day, the day that marks the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory complex in Bangladesh, 2013. Over 1,100 workers died that day, made all the more tragic by the fact that many had protested outside the building just that morning on the basis of the factory being unsafe. They’d noticed cracks in the walls, they knew something wasn’t right, but they were forced to go to work anyway.

The factory was producing fast fashion for consumers in the West. Brands linked to the factory included Primark, Walmart, Bonmarche and Matalan, as well as some US, German and French companies. Globalisation has enabled complex supply chains so it’s conceivable that these companies didn’t know they had direct links with suppliers so blatantly flaunting safety precautions. All they needed was cheap clothes to sell to the West on mass.

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So, where did fast fashion come from?

For most of history fashion has been slow, very slow. When you had to make your own clothes, or a new dress cost a few months’ wages, there wasn’t going to be anything fast about it. Then the machines started to make light work of spinning, weaving and even sewing, and by the 1920’s the U.S. faced a problem – overproduction.

In the sixty years since the civil war ended in 1865, the U.S. population had increased threefold, whilst output had increased twelve times. By 1927 the textile mills could produce enough cloth for the population’s needs (and by need, I mean actual need, not consumer desire mistaken for need) by operating for just six months of the year. Rather than think, “How wonderful! We can holiday (sorry, vacation) for half the year!” They saw it as a problem of surplus. Their solution, led by the likes of Herbert Hoover, was not to produce less and enjoy the shorter working hours afforded by the Industrial Revolution, but to make the public consume more. By creating a consumer desire for more stuff, they were able to shift more of the new consumables they were producing in the factories and boost the economy: which was needed, because in 1929 the US entered the Great Depression. John Maynard Keynes’ ‘age of leisure’ never came to fruition, as a consumer culture was posited as the route to increased productivity, competition and profits. It was a move that proved popular for consumers, who were promised improved happiness, health and social approval if they only bought more stuff, made all the more accessible with increased access to credit.

Clothing retailers quickly caught on and by the late 1980s were able to offer fast fashion to the masses. As wage costs soared in high wage economies Western retailers relocated assembly offshore, first to places like China and India, and then Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal. By capitalising on the low-cost skills in emerging manufacturing economies, Western retailers were able to plough their labour power into marketing and essentially driving a new consumer culture. This led some economists to believe that it was the suppliers who were set to gain because the increased demands on productivity would make them more efficient and competent and therefore, hold more power than the retailer.

Sadly, the opposite happened because overseas manufacturing facilities developed at a similar rate and the growth in concentration of Western retailers allowed for greater buying and bargaining power on their part. As factories became ever more dispensable to retailers, power dynamics tipped heavily to the brands who were able to place large orders as a way to push piece costs down. Producers had become subordinate to those who design, market and retail fast fashion in the West. The media and retail industries became increasingly entwined, bombarding us with messages to buy, buy, buy, so we’re all working as hard as ever to keep up. We now use shopping as a way to reward ourselves for all those hours at work.

There doesn’t have to be anything wrong with shopping per se. Manufacturing and retail is a huge part of the global economy and provides jobs. Yet fashion is an industry of binaries: producer/consumer, global south/north, rich/poor, shiny/broken. Ethical fashion advocates want to break down these binaries and ensure that the fashion economy works for the benefit of all and promotes craftsmanship and ethical business practices.

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Fashion Revolution encourages consumers to challenge brands on their corporate ethics. This year the campaign has shifted from a one-day event to a seven day ‘Fashion Revolution Week’. This means there’s plenty of time to get involved and ask brands ‘Who made my clothes?’ The more consumers use their voice, the more retailers have to listen. The easiest way to get involved is to take to social media and show your label.

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House of Lords: Baroness Young of Hornsey ‘Ethics and Sustainability in the Fashion Industry’

On Tuesday 19th March 2013 Baroness Young of Hornsey opened the second debate on ethics and sustainability in fashion at the House of Lords. It was great timing for me, as I had just organised a workshop day on ethical fashion and was about to present the outcomes of this during Multidisciplinary Research Week at the University of Southampton. One of my suggestions during these talks was that we need greater Government involvement and intervention so it was fantastic to see this debate going ahead. Government intervention will help change progress quicker, either with greater regulation, tighter controls or tax breaks for ethical and sustainable clothing.

WhoMadeYourPants? provide jobs to marginalised women to produce pants in the UK

WhoMadeYourPants? provide jobs to marginalised women to produce pants in the UK

You can catch up with the debate yourself at parliamentlive.tv or read the transcription here. I made some notes, which I will just list in bullet points:

• Fashion is global and local
• Cheaper to dump dye affluent than clean and reuse it
• 400 people died in factory fires in Bangladesh and Pakistan in last 6 months
• Should have better traceability measures & country of origin labelling
• Horse meat equivalent in fashion industry = cotton as it is often impossible to know where it’s from
• Need for leadership from government to support change makers, ethical initiatives and work in partnership to educate consumers, investing in sustainable fashion SMEs
• We have the moral incentives to act and we have talent in the UK
• Role DFID Responsible and Accountable Garment Sector (RAGS) Challenge Fund
• Government can support ethical clothing through purchase of public sector uniforms
• Many ETI members are engaged in practices which attempt to integrate human rights across the supply chain
• Business secretariat efforts to support UK textile manufacturing
• 20 years after first child labour scandals in our high street chains, we still face same problems. Audit procedures are failing, retailers rely too much on cheap, bribable inspectors
• Need more opportunities to showcase best practice, like Estethica at LFW
• £140m of used clothing going to landfill each year we need to urgently address the issue of reuse, exchange and disposal of clothes
• Govt’s consultation on waste prevention last week identifies clothing as one of priority areas for action
• 95% of Brits would never wear real fur
• Green is not just the new black – it is not a trend
• Industry should discourage image of thin models
• Uzbek cotton = 10% of world’s harvest & 20% of their GDP
• Labour behind the label – calls for improvements in wages and health and safety
• Western companies must be more vigilant of the supply chain and take personal responsibility for supply chains
• Human society’s obsessive circle of creation and destruction
• We need ethical production in UK too, sweatshops do exist
• Consumer’s don’t understand the skills, resources and effort taken to make garments
• Can’t wait for retailers to put voluntary codes in place, we need to create laws for their compliance.
• Need – Reinvestment in UK textile industry, transparency of brands so people can make informed choices, legislation
• World market leaders in fashion
• Barbour makes all of waxed coats in UK – gives money to charity
• Scandinavian’s in lead with most sustainable issues
• Lord Giddens commends Vivienne Westwood for her work on climate change
• Buy less and wear it more – at the heart of how we change consumer behaviour, we are addicted to shopping.
• Benefits of clothes hiring services, retailers offering a mending/alterations service, buy back, clothing exchange events amongst consumers
• 2011, nearly 18000 students registered on fashion and textile course in the UK – influence there, need ethics and sustainability embedded into educational programmes

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